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URL redirect/rewrite using the .htaccess file  

2009-12-27 18:01:41|  分类: drupal学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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.htaccess Redirect/Rewrite Tutorial

Part 1 - How do I redirect all links for www.domain.com to domain.com ?

Description of the problem:

By default your website can be accessed with both www.domain.com and domain.com. Since Google penalizes this due to duplicated content reasons, you should restrict the access to either www.domain.com or domain.com. Some links may be outside of your website scope and/or the search engines may have already indexed your website under both addresses.

Solution:

Create a 301 redirect forcing all http requests to use either www.domain.com or domain.com:

  • Example 1 - Redirect domain.com to www.domain.com:
    RewriteEngine On
      
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www.domain.com$ [NC]
    RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://www.domain.com/$1 [L,R=301]

  • Example 2 - Redirect www.domain.com to domain.com:
    RewriteEngine On
      
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^domain.com$ [NC]
    RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://domain.com/$1 [L,R=301]

Explanation of this .htaccess 301 redirect:

Let's have a look at the example 1 - Redirect domain.com to www.domain.com. The first line tells apache to start the rewrite module. The next line:

RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^www.domain.com$ [NC]
specifies that the next rule only fires when the http host (that means the domain of the queried url) is not (- specified with the "!") www.domain.com.

The $ means that the host ends with www.domain.com - and the result is that all pages from www.domain.com will trigger the following rewrite rule. Combined with the inversive "!" is the result every host that is not www.domain.com will be redirected to this domain.

The [NC] specifies that the http host is case insensitive. The escapes the "." - because this is a special character (normally, the dot (.) means that one character is unspecified).

The final line describes the action that should be executed:

RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://www.domain.com/$1 [L,R=301]
The ^(.*)$ is a little magic trick. Can you remember the meaning of the dot? If not, this can be any character(but only one). So .* means that you can have a lot of characters, not only one. This is what we need because ^(.*)$ contains the requested url, without the domain.

The next part http://www.domain.com/$1 describes the target of the rewrite rule. This is our "final" used domain name, where $1 contains the content of the (.*).

The next part is also important, since it does the 301 redirect for us automatically: [L,R=301]. L means this is the last rule in this run. After this rewrite the webserver will return a result. The R=301 means that the webserver returns a 301 moved permanently to the requesting browser or search engine.

Part 2 - How do I redirect domain.com/ to domain.com/index.php ?

Description of the problem:

You have a website with the name domain.com and you want to redirect all incomming urls that are going to domain.com/ to domain.com/index.php

Solution:

RewriteEngine On
  
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^domain.com$
RewriteRule ^$ http://domain.com/index.php [L,R=301]

Explanation of this .htaccess 301 redirect:

What does this code above do? Let's have a look at Example 1 - Redirect domain.com to www.domain.com. The first line starts the rewrite module. The next line:

RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !www.domain.com$
specifies that the next rule only fires when the http host (that means the domain of the queried url) is not (- specified with the "!") www.domain.com.

The $ means that the host ends with www.domain.com - and the result is that all pages from domain.com will trigger the following rewrite rule. Combined with the inversive "!" is the result every host that is not www.domain.com will be redirected to this domain.

The [NC] specifies that the http host is case insensitive. The escapes the "." - because this is a special character (normally, the dot (.) means that one character is unspecified).

The final line describes the action that should be executed:

RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://www.domain.com/$1 [L,R=301].
The ^(.*)$ is a little magic trick. Can you remember the meaning of the dot? If not, this can be any character(but only one). So .* means that you can have a lot of characters, not only one. This is what we intended. ^(.*)$ contains the requested url, without the domain.

The next part http://www.domain.com/$1 [L,R=301] describes the target of the rewrite rule -this is our "final" used domain name, where $1 contains the content of the (.*).

The next part is also important, since it does the 301 redirect for us automatically: [L,R=301]. L means this is the last rule in this run. After this rewrite the webserver will return a result. The R=301 means that the webserver returns a 301 moved permanently to the requesting browser or search engine.

Part 3 - How can I migrate domain content with .htaccess ?

Description of the problem:

You have an old website that is accessible under olddomain.com and you have a new website that is accessible under newdomain.com. Copying the content of the old website to the new website is the first step - but what comes after that? You should do a 301 moved permanently redirect from the old domain to the new domain - which is easy and has some advantages:

  • Users will automatically be redirected to the new domain - you do not have to inform them.
  • Search engines will be redirected to the new domain and all related information will be moved to the new domain (but this might take some time).
  • Google's PageRank ? will be transfered to the new domain, as well as other internal information that is being used to set the position of pages in the search engine result pages (serp's) - like TrustRank .

Solution:

Create a 301 redirect for all http requests that are going to the old domain.

  • Example 1 - Redirect from olddomain.com to www.newdomain.com:
    RewriteEngine On
        
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !newdomain.com$ [NC]
    RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://www.newdomain.com/$1 [L,R=301]
    This is useful when you use www.newdomain.com as your new domain name (see also this article about redirecting www and non-www domains). If not - use the code of example 2.

  • Example 2 - Redirect from olddomain.com to newdomain.com:
    RewriteEngine On
        
    RewriteBase /
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !newdomain.com$ [NC]
    RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://newdomain.com/$1 [L,R=301]

Part 4 - How can I add a trailing slash to requested URLs ?

Description of the problem:

Some search engines remove the trailing slash from urls that look like directories - e.g. Yahoo does it. However it could result into duplicated content problems when the same page content is accessible under different urls. Apache gives some more information in the Apache Server FAQ.

Let's have a look at an example: enarion.net/google/ is indexed in Yahoo as enarion.net/google - which would result in two urls with the same content.

Solution:

The solution is to create a .htaccess rewrite rule that adds the trailing slashes to these urls. Example - redirect all urls that do not have a trailing slash to urls with a trailing slash:

RewriteEngine On
  
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !example.php
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !(.*)/$
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://domain.com/$1/ [L,R=301]

Explanation of the add trailing slash .htaccess rewrite rule:

The first line tells Apache that this is code for the rewrite engine of the mod_rewrite module of Apache. The 2nd line sets the current directory as page root. But the interesting part is:

RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f 
makes sure that existing files will not get a slash added. You shouldn't do the same with directories since this would exlude the rewrite behaviour for existing directories. The line
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !example.php
exludes a sample url that shouldn't be rewritten. This is just an example. If you do not have a file or url that should not be rewritten, remove this line. The condition:
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !(.*)/$ 
finally fires when a url does not contain a trailing slash. Now we need to redirect the urls without the trailing slash:
RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://domain.com/$1/ [L,R=301] 
does the 301 redirect to the url, with the trailing slash appended. You should replace domain.com with your url. Make sure that you stick with the right domain name; if unsure, have a look at this article.


This article was referenced with gratitude from enarion.net at the following URL: http://enarion.net/web/apache/htaccess/

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